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EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health

04/25/2019 12:00 AM
Teens prefer harm reduction messaging on substance use
(University of British Columbia) For many parents, talking to their children about substance use is like navigating a field of landmines. It's difficult to know exactly what to say and how to say it. But a new study from the University of British Columbia is showing the way forward. Researchers found that a harm reduction message resonated the most with teens, instead of the typical "don't do drugs" talk.

04/25/2019 12:00 AM
Rates of physician-patient discussions about lung cancer screening very low and declining
(American Association for Cancer Research) Low rates of physician-patient discussions about lung cancer screening have declined further since 2012 and were not associated with current smokers' intents or attempts to quit smoking. In 2017, the prevalence of patient-physician discussions about lung cancer screening was only 4.3 percent in the general population and 8.7 percent among current smokers, down from 6.7 percent and 12.0 percent respectively in 2012.

04/25/2019 12:00 AM
Six factors may predict invasive breast cancer recurrence after DCIS diagnosis
(American Association for Cancer Research) Six factors were associated with invasive recurrence of breast cancer after a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), according to data from a meta-analysis.

04/25/2019 12:00 AM
College-age males at bars, parties more likely to be sexually aggressive
(Washington State University) College men who frequently attend parties or go to bars are more likely to be sexually aggressive compared to those who don't, Washington State University researchers have found.

04/25/2019 12:00 AM
Drug overdoses in young people on the rise
(Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs) In American adolescents and young adults, death rates from drug poisoning, particularly from opioids, have sharply increased over the last 10 years, according to new research in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.

04/24/2019 12:00 AM
PCORI award seeks to support students in recovery
(University of California - Riverside) The UC Riverside School of Medicine will address the marginalization of students in recovery from substance-use disorders with a $250,000 award designed to engage the Riverside campus and all others in the University of California system. The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute Eugene Washington Engagement Award will allow Ann Cheney, an assistant professor at the Center for Healthy Communities in the School of Medicine, to work for two years with students, academic colleagues, and recovery professionals.

04/24/2019 12:00 AM
Biologists share $1.83 million to explore why plant genomes duplicate
(Colorado State University) Joel Sharbrough, a postdoctoral fellow at Colorado State University, is sharing a $1.83 million grant from the National Science Foundation's Division of Integrative Organismal Systems to answer fundamental questions about how genome doubling influences the biology of a set of key crop plants. The grant was jointly awarded to Jonathan Wendel's lab at Iowa State University.

04/24/2019 12:00 AM
What the vibrant pigments of bird feathers can teach us about how evolution works
(University of Arizona) A UA team shows that evolution is driven by dependency on other species within ecological communities - testing a long-held idea of the UA's late, great George Gaylord Simpson.

04/24/2019 12:00 AM
Stroke patients receive different amounts of physical therapy
(Brown University) Medicare-covered stroke patients receive vastly different amounts of physical and occupational therapy during hospital stays despite evidence that such care is strongly associated with positive health outcomes, a new study by Brown University researchers found.

04/24/2019 12:00 AM
Researchers learn how 'bad cholesterol' enters artery walls
(UT Southwestern Medical Center) UT Southwestern researchers have determined how circulating "bad cholesterol" enters artery walls to cause the plaque that narrows the blood vessels and leads to heart attacks and strokes.

04/24/2019 12:00 AM
Blood thinner found to significantly reduce subsequent heart failure risks
(University of California - San Diego) Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine found using blood thinners in patients with worsening heart failure, coronary artery disease and irregular heart rhythms was associated with a reduced risk of thromboembolic events, such as stroke and heart attack.

04/24/2019 12:00 AM
Chemotherapy or not?
(Case Western Reserve University) Case Western Reserve University researchers and partners, including a collaborator at Cleveland Clinic, are pushing the boundaries of how 'smart' diagnostic-imaging machines identify cancers -- and uncovering clues outside the tumor to tell whether a patient will respond well to chemotherapy.

04/24/2019 12:00 AM
Eisenhower Health first in Southern California to offer landmark treatment for COPD/emphysema
(Pulmonx) Eisenhower Health is the first hospital in Southern California to offer a new lung valve treatment for patients with severe COPD/emphysema. The Zephyr Endobronchial Valve treatment represents a major advancement because it is the first minimally invasive procedure to help emphysema sufferers breathe easier without major surgery. Done through a simple bronchoscopy, the valves improve patients' quality of life by allowing them to breathe easier, be less short of breath, and be more active and energetic.

04/24/2019 12:00 AM
Studying cell lineage in tumors reveals targetable vulnerabilities
(Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research) To explain a person's actions in the present, it sometimes helps to understand their past, including where they come from and how they were raised. This is also true of tumors. Delving into a tumor's cellular lineage, a Ludwig Cancer Research study shows, can reveal weaknesses to target for customized therapies.

04/24/2019 12:00 AM
Scientists translate brain signals into speech sounds
(NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) Scientists used brain signals recorded from epilepsy patients to program a computer to mimic natural speech -- an advancement that could one day have a profound effect on the ability of certain patients to communicate. The study was supported by the National Institutes of Health's Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Technologies (BRAIN) Initiative.

04/24/2019 12:00 AM
Despite increase in insurance coverage for depression, growth in spending remains modest
(Emory Health Sciences) A new investigation finds that while insurance coverage for depression has increased, treatment rates are lower than expected, indicating that non-financial barriers to patient care still remain.

04/24/2019 12:00 AM
New synthesis strategy speeds identification of simpler versions of a natural product
(Baylor University) A new chemical synthesis strategy to harvest the rich information found in natural products -- organic compounds isolated from natural sources -- has led to the identification of novel, simpler derivatives with potential to selectively protect neurons, important for neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease, or to prevent the immune system from rejecting organ transplants, a Baylor-led study finds

04/24/2019 12:00 AM
Protein Science Best Paper Awards to Yu-ming Huang and Abhay Thakur
(The Protein Society) Warmest congratulations to Yu-ming 'Mindy' Huang and Abhay Thakur, recipients of the Protein Society's Year 2018 'Best Paper' awards.

04/24/2019 12:00 AM
Preparing for a changing population -- what it means to age successfully
(Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health) A paper by Columbia Mailman School's John Rowe, M.D., Julius Richmond Professor of Health Policy and Aging, in the journal Health Affairs outlines the challenges we face as the US becomes an 'aging society.' This transformation has major implications for our core institutions which were not designed to support this changing population distribution.

04/24/2019 12:00 AM
Study merges big data and zebrafish biology to reveal mechanisms of human disease
(Vanderbilt University Medical Center) In a series of studies that volleyed between large databases and research in zebrafish, Vanderbilt investigators have discovered a link between vascular biology and eye disease.The research uncovered an unexpected role for the gene GRIK5, and it showcases a new paradigm for using biobanks, electronic health records and zebrafish to discover the genetic mechanisms that contribute to human disease. The findings were reported in the American Journal of Human Genetics.

04/24/2019 12:00 AM
Hypersociability in Williams syndrome result of myelination deficits
(American Friends of Tel Aviv University) A new Tel Aviv University study finds that gene deletion or deficiency in neurons is responsible for the abnormal hypersocial behavior associated with Williams syndrome (WS), a rare disorder affecting 1 in 10,000 people around the world.

04/24/2019 12:00 AM
York University chemists invent new Lewis acidity test using fluorescence
(York University) York University chemists have invented a new fluorescence-based method for accurately determining the strength of a range of Lewis acids, which could one day be used to help purify pharmaceutical drugs, improve industrial processes and explore next-generation technologies, according to a new chemistry study.

04/24/2019 12:00 AM
Doctors turning to antibiotic alternatives to treat acne, Rutgers researchers find
(Rutgers University) Physicians are scaling back on prescribing antibiotics for long-term acne treatment in favor of a combinations of therapies, according to Rutgers researchers. The findings, published as Part I and Part II in the journal Dermatologic Clinics, surveyed studies on acute and long-term acne treatments over the past decade to identify trends.

04/24/2019 12:00 AM
Perfume makers seek natural, sustainable scents
(American Chemical Society) In 1921, perfumer Ernest Beaux discovered that adding synthetic aldehydes to natural rose and jasmine scents produced just the right fragrance combination for the iconic CHANELĀ® No. 5 perfume. Today, perfume makers have more than 3,000 synthetic scent molecules in their palettes. However, according to an article in Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN), the weekly newsmagazine of the American Chemical Society, consumer demand for natural ingredients has challenged perfumers to find natural, yet sustainable, scents.

04/24/2019 12:00 AM
Moffitt Researchers find BRAF protein modification could slow tumor growth
(H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute) Researchers in Moffitt Cancer Center's Donald A. Adam Melanoma and Skin Cancer Center of Excellence have discovered a signaling pathway between cytokines and BRAF that promotes tumor growth. The finding could provide a potential therapeutic target.

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