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EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health

02/24/2018 12:00 AM
Switching from smoking to glo significantly reduces exposure to toxicants
(R&D at British American Tobacco) Clinical studies by scientists at British American Tobacco indicate that when smokers switched completely from conventional cigarettes to glo, their exposure to certain harmful chemicals was significantly reduced. In some cases, the reductions were the same as those in smokers who quit altogether. These data suggest the potential of glo as a reduced-risk product. glo is a tobacco heating product designed to heat rather than burn tobacco. Tests show that glo vapour has around 90-95 percent less toxicants than smoke.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
Noted child psychiatrist Harold Koplewicz, MD, speaks out on the Parkland shooting
(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) Harold S. Koplewicz, MD, Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology and President of the Child Mind Institute has spoken out on the Parkland shooting and the urgent need to make mental health a priority for research and action.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
Short-term use of IV devices is common -- and risky -- study shows
(Michigan Medicine - University of Michigan) Many hospital patients get medicine or nutrition delivered straight into their bloodstream through a tiny device called a PICC. In just a decade, it's become the go-to device for intravenous care.But a new study finds that one in every four times a PICC gets inserted, the patient didn't need it long enough to justify the risks it can pose. And nearly one in ten of those patients suffered a complication linked to the device.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
Grand Challenges Canada announces funding for 40 new health innovations in India
(Terry Collins Assoc) Grand Challenges Canada today announced an investment of up to $7.9 million in 40 health innovations in India, supported by the Government of Canada through Global Affairs Canada and complemented by contributions of dozens of partners, creating a total investment of up to $12.3 million. Three of the projects will empower vulnerable, low-income women and girls in rural villages in India, and protect and preserve their human dignity, through innovative approaches to improving menstrual health.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
Emergency CT for head trauma may be overused, study shows
(American Roentgen Ray Society) Emergency patients are too often given head CT to check for skull fractures and brain hemorrhage, leading to unnecessary heath care costs and patient exposure to radiation, according to a study to be presented at the ARRS 2018 Annual Meeting, set for April 22-27 in Washington, DC.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
Why is mining-related lung disease on the rise?
(University of Illinois at Chicago) UIC researchers will determine why mine dust-related lung diseases, including progressive massive fibrosis and rapidly progressive pneumoconiosis, are on the rise.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
Evaluation of I-TOPP examines outcomes of transdisciplinary doctoral training program
(University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences) Over the past 30 years, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has doubled in 2- to 5-year-olds and tripled in children aged 6 to 11 years. To address this public health concern, in 2011, the USDA funded the Illinois Transdisciplinary Obesity Prevention Program (I-TOPP), a joint doctoral/Masters of Public Health (MPH) degree program, at the University of Illinois with the goal of training future leaders to address the problem of childhood obesity.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
Study explores emerging role of NAD+ in innate and adaptive immune responses
(Brigham and Women's Hospital) Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) have discovered a new cellular and molecular pathway that regulates CD4+ T cell response -- a finding that may lead to new ways to treat diseases that result from alterations in these cells.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
Dementia increases the risk of 30-day readmission to the hospital after discharge
(American Geriatrics Society) Until now, little was known about the effects of dementia on early hospital readmission. Researchers in Japan recently published the results of a study to learn more about the effects of dementia and being admitted to the hospital within 30 days of a previous hospital discharge (the medical term for leaving the hospital once your care is considered complete). Their study was published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
Study: Police use of force is rare, as are significant injuries to suspects
(Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center) Police officers rarely use force in apprehending suspects, and when they do they seldom cause significant injuries to those arrested, according to a multi-site study published in the March issue of the Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
China's two-child policy may exacerbate gender inequality
(University of British Columbia) Since China ended its one-child policy allowing all families to have up to two children, an additional 90 million women have become eligible to have a second child. But new UBC sociology research suggests the new universal two-child policy could be negatively affecting women's status and gender equality.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
US hospitals testing experimental therapies to prevent two common bacterial infections
(NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) NIAID-supported clinical sites in the US are participating in two ongoing international Phase 2 trials evaluating investigational antibody-based therapies aimed at preventing potentially antibiotic-resistant infections. By aligning the NIAID Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) with a large international consortium leading the effort, the US investigators hope to enroll adult patients from 15 intensive care units in the trials.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
Prevention is better than cure: Targeted vaccination to halt epidemics
(European Commission Joint Research Centre) Scientists at the Joint Research centre, the European Commission's science and knowledge service, simulated real-world social networks to assess the best strategies for halting epidemics.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
New device for low-cost single-cell analysis identifies fibroblast subtypes in RA patients
(New York Genome Center) As described in a study published today in Nature Communications, researchers at the New York Genome Center (NYGC) and New York University (NYU) have taken steps to facilitate broad access to single-cell sequencing by developing a 3-D-printed, portable and low-cost microfluidic controller. To demonstrate the utility of the instrument in clinical environments, the researchers deployed the device to study synovial tissue from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS).

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
Ice chips only? Study questions restrictions on oral intake for women in labor
(Wolters Kluwer Health) At most US maternity units, women in labor are put on nil per os (NPO) status -- they're not allowed to eat or drink anything, except ice chips. But new nursing research questions that policy, showing no increase in risks for women who are allowed to eat and drink during labor. The study appears in the March issue of the American Journal of Nursing, published by Wolters Kluwer.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
Looking for an off switch for celiac disease
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) New research published in the Feb. 23 issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry identifies an enzyme that turns off transglutaminase 2, potentially paving the way for new treatments for celiac disease.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
Children's learning is not affected by repeated sick days with fever and infections
(Aarhus University) Whereas severe infections with long-term hospitalisations can make it more difficult for a child to pass the 9th grade exam, recurring less serious severe infections do not affect children's learning. This is shown by the hitherto largest study of almost 600,000 Danish children.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
Genetics makes Asians and Europeans susceptible to severe dengue
(Institut Pasteur) As globalization and climate change spread tropical infectious diseases around the globe, not all populations have the same degree of susceptibility. Researchers from the Institut Pasteur, CNRS and the Institute for Research and Innovation in Health-University of Porto (i3S) identified gene variants common in people of Asian and European ancestry, making them more prone than those of African origin to developing severe dengue, which can lead to potentially fatal dengue shock syndrome.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
The Company of Biologists launches preLights
(The Company of Biologists) preLights is the new preprint highlighting service run by the biological community and supported by The Company of Biologists. As the number of preprints grows, it will become increasingly difficult to find and filter relevant/interesting preprints. Our dedicated team of scientists select, highlight and comment on preprints they feel are of particular interest to the biological community.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
New link between gut bacteria and obesity
(Lund University) Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have discovered a new link between gut bacteria and obesity. They found that certain amino acids in our blood can be connected to both obesity and the composition of the gut microbiome.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
Complex inhalers prevent patients from taking medicine
(University of Bath) Respiratory disease patients with arthritis could struggle to manage their conditions because their inhalers are too fiddly for them to use, University of Bath research has found.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
Stem cell study may result in stronger muscles in old age
(Karolinska Institutet) As we grow older, our muscular function declines. A new study by researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden shows how an unexpectedly high number of mutations in the stem cells of muscles impair cell regeneration. This discovery may result in new medication to build stronger muscles even when in old age. The study is published in Nature Communications.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
Screening for fracture risk in postmenopausal women is cost-effective
(Wiley) A recent Journal of Bone and Mineral Research analysis indicates that screening for fracture risk in older postmenopausal women is a good use of healthcare resources--in other words, it's cost-effective.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
Impact of misunderstanding genetic tests for heart conditions
(University of Sydney) Patients who undergo genetic testing for inherited heart disease need to be better informed to know how to interpret the results and understand the impact the results will have on their life, a University of Sydney study has found.

02/23/2018 12:00 AM
A specific new ELISA method for analyzing cetuximab
(Bentham Science Publishers) Cetuximab (CET) is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) used for immunotherapy of different types of cancer. This study describes the development and full validation of a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with high sensitivity and selectivity for bioanalysis of CET.

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