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EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health

10/22/2017 12:00 AM
Dartmouth economist outlines reforms to improve access to affordable, high quality child care
(Dartmouth College) For families in the US, the costs of high-quality child care are exorbitant, especially for those with children under age five. A new policy proposal, 'Public Investments in Child Care,' by Dartmouth Associate Professor of Economics Elizabeth Cascio, finds that current federal child care tax policies are not benefiting the families most burdened by child care costs. Therefore, Cascio outlines a new policy that could replace the current federal child care tax policies.

10/22/2017 12:00 AM
Arsenic exposure in us public drinking water declines following new EPA regulations
(Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health) Exposure to arsenic in drinking water was significantly reduced among Americans using public water systems following the Environmental Protection Agency regulation on maximum levels of arsenic. Compliance led to a decline of 17 percent in levels of urinary arsenic, equivalent to an estimated reduction of over 200 cases of lung and bladder disease every year. However, there were no improvements in arsenic exposure rates among users of private wells, which are not federally regulated.

10/22/2017 12:00 AM
Key discoveries offer significant hope of reversing antibiotic resistance
(University of Bristol) Two recent studies led by the University of Bristol provide significant new hope in the fight against antibiotic resistance. By identifying what makes some bacteria resistant to the most commonly prescribed antibiotics, and how this can be reversed, the findings have demonstrated potentially life-saving consequences and could help reverse the tide of antibiotic resistance.

10/22/2017 12:00 AM
After skyrocketing, opioid abuse plateaus but remains too high, national analysis shows
(American Society of Anesthesiologists) While the breakneck upswing in opioid abuse has leveled off, it remains disturbingly high and does not appear to continue its decline, according to an analysis of national data presented at the ANESTHESIOLOGY® 2017 annual meeting.

10/22/2017 12:00 AM
Women who give birth in winter or spring less likely to have postpartum depression
(American Society of Anesthesiologists) Women who give birth in winter or spring are less likely than women who deliver in the fall or summer to suffer from postpartum depression (PPD), suggests a study of more than 20,000 women. The study also found that women who delivered babies at a higher gestational age (further along in their pregnancy) were less likely to develop PPD, and women who did not have anesthesia, such as an epidural, during delivery had an increased risk.

10/21/2017 12:00 AM
Patients often overestimate postoperative pain, study finds
(American Society of Anesthesiologists) Patients significantly overestimate the anticipated amount of pain they'll experience following surgery, which researchers say can cause unnecessary anxiety in patients, according to a study being presented at the ANESTHESIOLOGY® 2017 annual meeting. Patients who receive regional anesthesia, such as peripheral nerve blocks, epidurals or spinal anesthesia, were most likely to overestimate their postoperative pain.

10/21/2017 12:00 AM
Perioperative Surgical Home reduces death, ER visits in elderly hip fracture patients
(American Society of Anesthesiologists) Elderly patients who had emergency repair of a fractured hip were much less likely to die or make a return visit to the emergency room (ER) after discharge if they received care under the Perioperative Surgical Home (PSH) model of care, suggests research presented at the ANESTHESIOLOGY® 2017 annual meeting.

10/21/2017 12:00 AM
Length of incision may affect pain after cesarean delivery
(American Society of Anesthesiologists) Both short and long surgical incisions for cesarean births are associated with increased pain after delivery, suggests a study being presented at the ANESTHESIOLOGY® 2017 annual meeting. Based on the findings, the authors recommend an optimal range for cesarean incision length to be between 12 and 17 centimeters (about 4.5-6.5 inches), and advise that neither shorter nor longer incisions be performed when possible.

10/21/2017 12:00 AM
Hip and knee replacement patients using fewer opioids to manage pain after surgery
(American Society of Anesthesiologists) Opioid use in patients recovering from hip and knee replacement decreased by one-third between 2006 and 2014, reflecting success in efforts to promote a multimodal approach to pain management (using a variety of methods to manage pain) rather than using opioids alone, reveals new research being presented at the ANESTHESIOLOGY® 2017 annual meeting.

10/21/2017 12:00 AM
Acetaminophen may help reduce postoperative shivering
(American Society of Anesthesiologists) Administering acetaminophen, such as Tylenol, during surgery may reduce the incidence of postoperative shivering, suggests a study being presented at the ANESTHESIOLOGY® 2017 annual meeting.

10/21/2017 12:00 AM
Diabetes boosts risk of cognitive issues after surgery, especially in seniors, study finds
(American Society of Anesthesiologists) Older patients with diabetes may be at an 84 percent higher risk of developing postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) than those who are not diabetic, suggests new research being presented at the ANESTHESIOLOGY® 2017 annual meeting.

10/21/2017 12:00 AM
Ketamine may help treat migraine pain unresponsive to other therapies
(American Society of Anesthesiologists) Ketamine may help alleviate migraine pain in patients who have not been helped by other treatments, suggests a study being presented at the ANESTHESIOLOGY 2017 annual meeting.

10/20/2017 12:00 AM
Exploring how herpes simplex virus changes when passed between family members
(Penn State) A new study offers a rare glimpse into the genetics of a herpes simplex virus transmission event -- information that may prove useful in future development of therapeutics and vaccines. The study reveals nearly perfect genetic transmission of the virus from a father to his son and lays the foundation for future studies exploring the genetic diversity of this virus.

10/20/2017 12:00 AM
The New York Stem Cell Foundation Annual Conference
(New York Stem Cell Foundation) NYSCF's 12th Annual Translational Stem Cell Research Conference convenes global leaders in translational stem cell and neuroscience research to present their latest work towards new treatments and cures for the most devastating diseases and injuries currently facing the world. The two-day conference features discussions on transformative new technologies in the field, how to get new research into the clinic for patients, and challenges in the regenerative medicine field as well as disease area-specific panels.

10/20/2017 12:00 AM
Why aren't more kids with sickle cell disease getting this test?
(Medical University of South Carolina) Hematologist and researcher Julie Kanter says as few as 30 percent of children across the country with sickle cell disease are getting a simple test that could keep them from having a stroke. She wants to bring that more in line with the MUSC Health rate of around 85 percent. So Kanter and two other researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina are leading a national, 28-site study, looking at what keeps some children from getting transcranial Doppler exams.

10/20/2017 12:00 AM
$1.25 million grant to improve treating children with autism, other needs
(Penn State) Penn State faculty members have received a $1.25 million federal grant to address a shortage in speech-language pathologists and special educators with master's degrees who have the knowledge and experience in Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) practices, in order to improve school-based services and results for children, teens and young adults with complex communication needs.

10/20/2017 12:00 AM
BU researchers create tool to measure, control protein aggregation
(Boston University College of Engineering) In the cover article in the current issue of Cell, BU Biomedical Engineer Ahmad S. Khalil along with colleagues from MIT and the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, among others, describe the synthetic genetic tool they built to quantitatively sense, measure and manipulate protein aggregation in live cells. This may open the door to greater understanding and treatment of a range of maladies from Alzheimer's to type II diabetes.

10/20/2017 12:00 AM
Tufts wins award to participate in new national emergency medicine clinical trials network
(Tufts Clinical and Translational Science Institute) Tufts Medical Center (Tufts MC) joins an elite group of institutions selected to lead national clinical trials in the Strategies to Innovate EmeRgENcy Care Clinical Trials Network (SIREN) Network, a new initiative of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to advance critical emergency medicine research. The SIREN Network is five-year NIH cooperative award that brings together 15 'Hub' institutions and their local 'spoke' sites to provide a national infrastructure for conducting large multi-site clinical trials.

10/20/2017 12:00 AM
Marshall School of Medicine announces program to improve access to diabetes care in WV
(Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine ) The Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine today launched a new program, Care Coordination of High Risk Diabetes Patients, thanks to a $1.5 million grant over five years from the Merck Foundation.

10/20/2017 12:00 AM
Parents' alcohol use can set the stage for teenage dating violence, study finds
(University at Buffalo) Having a parent with an alcohol use disorder increases the risk for dating violence among teenagers, according to a study from the University at Buffalo Research Institute on Addictions.

10/20/2017 12:00 AM
Research predicts increase in inflammatory bowel disease in developing world
(University of Calgary) For the last century, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been a challenge for patients and the medical community in the western world. New research published today in The Lancet by Dr. Gilaad Kaplan shows that countries outside the western world may now be facing the same pattern of increasing IBD rates.

10/20/2017 12:00 AM
Superstorm Sandy five years later: How NJIT assisted with recovery efforts
(New Jersey Institute of Technology) Five years ago, Superstorm Sandy devastated the U.S. east coast, taking the lives of 34 New Jersey residents, destroying hundreds of thousands of homes and businesses, and causing over $62 billion in damage. The NJIT community responded to the disaster with immediate assistance and farsighted planning for the future.

10/20/2017 12:00 AM
Nicotinic receptor could be target for treatment of lung inflammation
(Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo) Tests using mice employed an experimental drug that stimulates a specific type of nicotinic receptor in immune cells; researchers attested the reversion of the inflammation condition. The results of the drug were surprising, given the fact that it simulates acetylcholine, a bronchoconstrictor neurotransmitter inhibited by asthma and DPOC's best-known treatments

10/20/2017 12:00 AM
Youth Enjoy Science (YES) grant brings diversity to cancer research
(Case Western Reserve University) Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, in partnership with the Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, was awarded a five-year grant, totaling $2.5 million to engage underrepresented minorities in Cleveland-area schools in cancer research.

10/20/2017 12:00 AM
The skinny on lipid immunology
(Brigham and Women's Hospital) In a new study published in Science Immunology, researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital and Monash University in Australia reveal new insights into the basis for T cell receptor (TCR) autoreactivity to self-phospholipids, with implications for autoimmune diseases.

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