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EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
SF State study compares athlete and truck driver, identical twins
(San Francisco State University) Identical twins share over 99 percent of the same genetic material, which can make them ideal subjects for studying how other factors besides genetics can affect health. A new study by the San Francisco State University Kinesiology Department, CSU Fullerton, and Cal Poly, Pomona finds that 30 years of strenuous exercise made one twin much healthier than the other, with one exception.

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
Kessler Foundation and UAB to study exercise training for cognitive deficits in MS
(Kessler Foundation) 'We know from our own pilot data that exercise training has considerable promise for improving cognition in this population,' explained Dr. Wylie. 'We hypothesize that treadmill exercise training will result in significant improvements in MS-related cognitive impairment. This research may foster the development of exercise training guidelines that can be used by clinicians to improve cognition and brain health in individuals with MS.'

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
SPIE journal announces public access to largest multi-lesion medical imaging dataset
(SPIE--International Society for Optics and Photonics) A paper published today in the Journal of Medical Imaging - "DeepLesion: Automated mining of large-scale lesion annotations and universal lesion detection with deep learning," -- announced the open availability of the largest CT lesion-image database accessible to the public. Such data are the foundations for the training sets of machine-learning algorithms; until now, large-scale annotated radiological image datasets, essential for the development of deep learning approaches, have not been publicly available.

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
Loyola medicine radiologist wins award for best clinical research paper
(Loyola University Health System) Loyola Medicine radiologist Jennifer Lim-Dunham, M.D., and colleagues have received the Society for Pediatric Radiology's prestigious Walter E. Berdon Award for best clinical research paper appearing in the journal Pediatric Radiology in 2017.

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
The need for speed: Why malaria parasites are faster than human immune cells
(Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS)) Elementary cytoskeleton protein is different in parasites and represents a starting point for a possible new therapy against malaria infections. Researchers from the Heidelberg University Hospital, the Centre for Molecular Biology at the University of Heidelberg (ZMBH), and the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS) have published these findings in the journal "PLOS Biology".

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
Scientists reverse aging-associated skin wrinkles and hair loss in a mouse model
(University of Alabama at Birmingham) Researchers have reversed wrinkled skin and hair loss, hallmarks of aging, in a mouse model. When a mutation leading to mitochondrial dysfunction is induced, the mouse develops wrinkled skin and extensive, visible hair loss in a matter of weeks. When the mitochondrial function is restored by turning off the gene responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction, the mouse returns to smooth skin and thick fur, indistinguishable from a healthy mouse of the same age.

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
A molecular key for delaying the progression of Multiple Sclerosis is found
(University of the Basque Country ) In the lab it was possible to improve the symptoms in the chronic phase of the disease while encouraging the repair of the nervous tissue, and the challenge now is to move the research forward in humans. This discovery is the outcome of the work by an international consortium led in the Basque Autonomous Community by the UPV/EHU and the Achucarro centre together with personnel from ciberNed and CICbiomaGUNE.

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
From pollutants to human health: Key questions for a better environmental future in Europe
(University of Barcelona) A new study, published in the journal Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, wants to shape a new guideline --with a more global and coordinated perspective-- for several social and economic sectors in the field of chemical products and management of environmental risks in Europe.

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
Doctors rely on more than just data for medical decision making
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) A study from MIT computer scientists finds patients with similar medical profiles receive different treatments based on doctors' 'gut feelings.'

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
Houseplants could one day monitor home health
(University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture) In a perspective published in the July 20 issue of Science, a team of University of Tennessee faculty and a student from two unrelated disciplines -- plant sciences and architectural design -- explore the future of houseplants as aesthetically pleasing and functional sirens of home health. Their idea is to genetically engineer house plants to serve as subtle alarms that something is amiss in our home and office environments.

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
Press registration now open: European Respiratory Society's International Congress
(European Lung Foundation) The European Respiratory Society International Congress will take place at the Paris Expo Porte de Versailles from September 15 to 19, 2018.The Congress will be attended by the world's leading respiratory experts who will present cutting-edge research in a large and varied scientific program. Over 4,000 abstracts will cover a diverse range of disease areas and specialisms, including lung cancer, asthma and COPD, children's lung health, personalized medicine, e-cigarettes, AI and risk factors.

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
Secondhand smoke causing thousands of still births in developing countries
(University of York) Exposure to secondhand smoke is causing thousands of still births in developing countries, according to new research carried out by the University of York.

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
A peek into the interplay between sleep and wakefulness
(University of Tsukuba) The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) in the brain plays a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of sleep, while the lateral posterior part of the hypothalamus contains neuronal populations implicated in maintenance of arousal. Now, a University of Tsukuba-centered study reveals that these arousal-related neurons are heavily innervated by GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area including the VLPO. The work provides important information to understand the mechanisms that control animals' sleep/wakefulness states.

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
The genes are not to blame
(Technical University of Munich (TUM)) Individualized dietary recommendations based on genetic information are currently a popular trend. A team at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has systematically analyzed scientific articles and reached the following conclusion: There is no clear evidence for the effect of genetic factors on the consumption of total calories, carbohydrates, and fat. According to the current state of knowledge, the expedience of gene-based dietary recommendations has yet to be proven.

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
The cause of prostate cancer progression to incurable stage has likely been uncovered
(Academy of Finland) Researchers at the University of Oulu in Finland have discovered novel genes and mechanisms that can explain how a genomic variant in a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11672691 influences prostate cancer aggressiveness. Their findings also suggest ways to improve risk stratification and clinical treatment for advanced prostate cancer. The study is published in the journal Cell.

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
Action on Hearing Loss UK awards NCBS scientist
(National Centre for Biological Sciences) Protocadherin-15 is crucial in allowing the inner ear to detect sound and balance information and pass it on to the brain, and mutations in protocadherin-15 cause hearing loss. This research provides insight into how protocadherin-15 is important for hearing, and how it could be targeted with drugs to repair its function and restore hearing.

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
Drug now in clinical trials for Parkinson's strengthens heart contractions in animals
(Johns Hopkins Medicine) A drug currently in clinical trials for treating symptoms of Parkinson's disease may someday have value for treating heart failure, according to results of early animal studies by Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers.

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
Frailty may be more deadly in younger heart patients, study finds
(University of Ottawa Heart Institute) A new study conducted by researchers at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute and published in the Journal of the American Heart Association examines the prevalence of frailty and its association with long-term mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
New study shows video games can improve health in children with obesity
(Louisiana State University) A new study from LSU's Pennington Biomedical Research Center showed for the first time that video games, in combination with fitness coaching and a step tracker, helped overweight children lose weight, lower their blood pressure and cholesterol and increase their physical activity.

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
Greening vacant lots reduces feelings of depression in city dwellers, Penn study finds
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Greening vacant urban land significantly reduces feelings of depression and improves overall mental health for the surrounding residents, researchers show in a new randomized, controlled study published in JAMA Network Open. The findings have implications for cities across the United States, where 15 percent of land is deemed "vacant" and often blighted or filled with trash and overgrown vegetation.

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
Supplemental oxygen eliminates morning blood pressure rise in sleep apnea patients
(American Thoracic Society) Supplemental oxygen eliminates the rise in morning blood pressure experienced by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients who stop using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), the standard treatment for OSA, according to new research published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
Wearable device from Stanford measures cortisol in sweat
(Stanford University) By drawing in a bit of sweat, a patch developed in the lab of Alberto Salleo can reveal how much cortisol a person is producing. Cortisol is known as the stress hormone but is involved in many important physiological functions.

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
Can greening vacant urban land improve mental health?
(JAMA Network) Physical conditions in a neighborhood matter. Trash, a lack of sidewalks and parks, and vacant or dilapidated spaces have been associated with depression, while living near green spaces has been associated with less depression, anxiety and stress. In Philadelphia, a citywide cluster randomized trial looked at whether greening vacant urban land by getting rid of trash, grading the land, planting new grass and some trees, and installing low wooden fencing could improve self-reported mental health.

07/20/2018 12:00 AM
Effect of twice-weekly calorie restriction diet for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes
(JAMA Network) A diet with calorie restriction two days per week was comparable to a diet with daily calorie restriction for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

07/19/2018 12:00 AM
Treating dementia with the healing waves of sound
(Tohoku University) Ultrasound applied to the brain could help treat patients with dementia.

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