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EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
Anterior insula activation restores prosocial behavior in animal model of opioid addiction
(Arizona State University) Researchers in the Arizona State University Department of Psychology have shown that chemogenetic activation of the anterior insula restores prosocial behavior in an animal model of opioid addiction and empathy. The findings suggest an important role for the anterior insula in the brain response to addiction.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
Using sponges to wipe out cancer
(Medical University of South Carolina) Manzamine A, a natural product derived from certain groups of sponges, can block the growth of cervical cancer cells, report Medical University of South Carolina researchers, working with investigators and students at the University of South Carolina, College of Charleston, Gadjah Mada University in Indonesia and University of Malaya in Malaysia. Manzamine A targets a protein that is highly expressed in many cancers, including cervical cancer, and is the first reported inhibitor of this protein.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
Suffering from skin damage from face masks?
(University of Huddersfield) DOCTORS and nurses on the COVID-19 frontline are spending many hours a day wearing face masks, and many members of the general public are doing the same. But although the devices offer invaluable protection, they can cause significant skin damage through sweating and the rubbing of the masks against the nose. Skincare experts at the University of Huddersfield are warning about the risks and suggesting remedies.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
UMass Amherst engineers, nurses design low-cost face shield PPE for health care
(University of Massachusetts Amherst) In just under two weeks, researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, with engineers, nurses and other health care professionals, have developed a design informed by clinical feedback for protective plastic face shields as the nation combats the spread of the coronavirus. It will be made available to manufacturers to mass-produce personal protective equipment (PPE) for health care workers and others.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
A direct protein-to-protein binding couples cell survival to cell proliferation
(University of Alabama at Birmingham) The regulators of apoptosis watch over cell replication and the decision to enter the cell cycle. Researchers now show a direct link between the protein MCL1 -- a member of the BCL2 protein family known as the gatekeepers of apoptosis -- and the cell-cycle checkpoint protein P18. Through this link, MCL1, which functions in the decision between either cell survival or programmed death, can also directly initiate cell proliferation.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
How important is speech in transmitting coronavirus?
(University of California - Davis) Normal speech by individuals who are asymptomatic but infected with coronavirus may produce enough aerosolized particles to transmit the infection, according to aerosol scientists at UC Davis. Although it's not yet known how important this is to the spread of COVID-19, it underscores the need for strict social distancing measures -- and for virologists, epidemiologists and engineers who study aerosols and droplets to work together on this and other respiratory diseases.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
New study identifies characteristics of patients with fatal COVID-19
(American Thoracic Society) In a new study, researchers identified the most common characteristics of 85 COVID-19 patients who died in Wuhan, China in the early stages of the coronavirus pandemic. The study reports on commonalities of the largest group of coronavirus patient deaths to be studied to date. The paper was published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
Trial for potential coronavirus treatment is underway at Montefiore and Einstein
(Albert Einstein College of Medicine) Montefiore Health System and Albert Einstein College of Medicine has joined a clinical trial to evaluate the experimental drug remdesivir to treat people who are hospitalized with severe COVID-19 infection.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
Making plant protein look and feel more like whole meat
(University of Massachusetts Amherst) A team of University of Massachusetts Amherst food scientists has been awarded a grant from the Good Food Institute to create tasty, plant-based, protein-rich food that's similar in texture to whole chicken, pork or beef.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
Wearing surgical masks in public could help slow COVID-19 pandemic's advance
(University of Maryland) Surgical masks may help prevent infected people from making others sick with seasonal viruses, including coronaviruses, according to new research.In laboratory experiments, the masks significantly reduced the amounts of various airborne viruses coming from infected patients, measured using the breath-capturing 'Gesundheit II machine' developed by Dr. Don Milton, professor in the University of Maryland School of Public Health and a senior author of the study published April 3 in the journal Nature Medicine.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
Removing the novel coronavirus from the water cycle
(University of California - Riverside) Researchers at UC Riverside and the University of Salerno have called for more research to determine the best ways to keep SARS-CoV-19 out of the water cycle. They also suggest that developed nations should finance water treatment systems in the developing world to help prevent future COVID-19 pandemics.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
Patients with Parkinson's disease face unique 'hidden sorrows' related to the COVID-19
(IOS Press) While much attention has focused on the potential for severe respiratory complications and unfavorable outcomes from the COVID-19 pandemic among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), the impact extends beyond these threats. Social distancing requires flexible adaptation to new circumstances, resilience, and a reduction in physical activities, which may be more difficult for patients with PD.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
Passport to improved health for military veterans
(Anglia Ruskin University) A healthcare 'passport' to access NHS and other well-being services has been beneficial for the mental health of veterans and provides them with a sense of identity, according to research published in the BMJ Military Health.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
nTIDE Mar 2020: COVID-19 effects not yet seen in jobs data for Americans with disabilities
(Kessler Foundation) 'We actually have positive news this month for people with disability, but today's job numbers don't reflect the devastating losses of the last three weeks of March. We have yet to see the impact of COVID-19 on the employment situation of people with or without disabilities," said John O'Neill, PhD, director of employment and disability research at Kessler Foundation. "Next month's nTIDE will almost certainly reveal the expected downturn.'

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
COVID-19 pandemic may exacerbate childhood obesity
(Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health) Public health scientists predict that school closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic will exacerbate the epidemic of childhood obesity in the United States. Andrew Rundle, DrPH, associate professor of epidemiology at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, and colleagues expect that COVID-19-related school closures will double out?of?school time this year for many children in the US and will exacerbate risk factors for weight gain associated with summer recess.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
The Lancet Public Health: US modelling study estimates impact of school closures for COVID-19 on US health-care workforce and associated mortality
(The Lancet) US policymakers considering physical distancing measures to slow the spread of COVID-19 face a difficult trade-off between closing schools to reduce transmission and new cases, and potential health-care worker absenteeism due to additional childcare needs that could ultimately increase mortality from COVID-19, according to new modelling research published in The Lancet Public Health journal.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
Coronavirus Vaccine: Where are we and what's next? (video)
(American Chemical Society) You might have heard that COVID-19 vaccine trials are underway in Seattle. What exactly is being tested? How much longer will these tests take? And when can we expect a vaccine against the novel coronavirus? We chat with Benjamin Neuman, Ph.D., one of the world's experts on coronavirus, and Daniel Wrapp, one of the scientists who mapped the structure of the protein that the coronavirus uses to infect your cells, to help us answer these questions: https://youtu.be/gDY8pH6OWBc.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
Rice University emergency ventilator plans now online
(Rice University) Free open-source plans for Rice's emergency ventilator device that could help COVID-19 patients are now online and available for download.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
An antibiotic masquerading as a natural compound in the Giant Madeiran Squill
(Uppsala University) A previous study has shown that a type of squill growing in Madeira produces a chemical compound that may be useful as a medicinal drug. But a new study from researchers at Uppsala University has shown that this is probably not true: instead, the plant had likely accumulated antibiotics from contaminated soil.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
New family of molecules to join altered receptors in neurodegenerative diseases
(University of Barcelona) An article published in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry shows a new family of molecules with high affinity to join imidazoline receptors, which are altered in the brain of those patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's. According to the preclinical study, the merge of these specific ligands to I2 receptors improves cognitive skills and some biomarkers which are indicators of brain neurodegenerative processes in murine models.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
Tissue dynamics provide clues to human disease
(European Molecular Biology Laboratory) Scientists in EMBL Barcelona's Ebisuya group, with collaborators from RIKEN, Kyoto University, and Meijo Hospital in Nagoya, Japan, have studied oscillating patterns of gene expression, coordinated across time and space within a tissue grown in vitro, to explore the molecular causes of a rare human hereditary disease known as spondylocostal dysostosis. Their results are published in Nature.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
Researchers map mechanism to explain role of gene mutations in kidney disease
(University of Maryland School of Medicine) Researchers from the Center for Precision Disease Modeling at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) have uncovered a mechanism that appears to explain how certain genetic mutations give rise to a rare genetic kidney disorder called nephrotic syndrome.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
Coronavirus: Virological findings from patients treated in a Munich hospital
(Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin) In early February, research teams from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, München Klinik Schwabing and the Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology published initial findings describing the efficient transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The researchers' detailed report on the clinical course and treatment of Germany's first group of COVID-19 patients has now been published in Nature*. Criteria may now be developed to determine the earliest point at which COVID-19 patients treated in hospitals with limited bed capacity can be safely discharged.

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
POssible coronavirus drug identified by Australian scientists
(Monash University) Australian Scientists have shown that an anti-parasitic drug already available around the world can kill the virus -- effectively eradicating all genetic material of the virus within 48 hours. Scientists from Monash University in Melbourne showed that a single dose of the drug, Ivermectin, could stop the SARS-CoV-2 virus growing in cell culture -

04/03/2020 12:00 AM
Study of rare genetic disorder that effects the eyes
(Shinshu University) Small gauge vitrectomy for vitreous amyloidosis and subsequent management of secondary glaucoma in patients with hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis.

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