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EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
Researchers refine guidelines for pediatric brain injuries
(University of Washington Health Sciences/UW Medicine) There are no guideliInnes on whether a noninvasive method of measuring carbon dioxide from patients' exhalations, known as end-tidal capnography, is as effective as drawing blood through a child's artery.This study published in JAMA found that measuring the carbon dioxide level through an artery is still the most accurate diagnostic for pediatric brain trauma.

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
Children with mild asthma can use inhalers as needed
(Washington University School of Medicine) A new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis supports evidence that children with mild asthma can effectively manage the condition by using their two inhalers -- one a steroid and the other a bronchodilator -- when symptoms occur. This is in contrast to the traditional method of using the steroid daily, regardless of symptoms, and the bronchodilator when symptoms occur. The as-needed use of both inhalers is just as effective for mild asthma as the traditional protocol, according to the investigators.

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
From the tiny testes of flies, new insight into how genes arise
(Rockefeller University) A common birthplace of new genes, the male testes are a hotspot for biological innovation. Within these organs, scientists have found a trove of virgin genetic sequences--and a better understanding of how evolution moves forward.

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
Researcher discovers gene mutation that contributes to addiction
(University of Oklahoma) A researcher at the OU College of Medicine, William R. Lovallo, Ph.D., recently published one of the field's few studies focused on how a person's genes contribute to addiction. Lovallo's research showed that a tiny genetic mutation can put people at higher risk for alcohol or drug addiction.

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
Physiological mechanisms leading to enterovirus opening revealed
(University of Jyväskylä - Jyväskylän yliopisto) Enteroviruses are one of the most common human pathogens leading to high number of acute and chronic infections worldwide. The physiological events leading to successful enterovirus infection are still poorly understood. Researchers at the Nanoscience Center at the University of Jyväskylä and at the University of Helsinki have found significant new information concerning the role of Albumin and ions in host cell vesicles that promote genome release and efficient infection. The research was published in the Journal of Virology in August.

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
ALS drug grant to spur drug discovery at Northwestern
(Northwestern University) Two Northwestern University scientists have received a $3.1 million NIH grant to investigate drug therapies for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS.) One of the scientists, Richard Silverman, is the inventor of Lyrica. Initial results with his new compounds are quite promising. They may have broader applications for other neurodegenerative diseases.

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
Wearable sensors detect what's in your sweat
(University of California - Berkeley) A team of scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, is developing wearable skin sensors that can detect what's in your sweat. In a new paper, the team describes a sensor design that can be rapidly manufactured using a "roll-to-roll" processing technique that essentially prints the sensors onto a sheet of plastic like words on a newspaper. The sensors can provide real-time measurements of sweat rate, and electrolytes and metabolites in sweat.

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
UTHealth's Louise McCullough earns 2019 Landis Award for Outstanding Mentorship
(University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston) Louise McCullough, MD, PhD, professor and chair of neurology at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth), has received the 2019 Landis Award for Outstanding Mentorship from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
Study reveals how stress can curb the desire to eat in an animal model
(University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston) Eating disorder researchers at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) have discovered a neurocircuit in mice that, when activated, increased their stress levels while decreasing their desire to eat. Findings appear in Nature Communications.

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
Discovery of anti-opioid pathway offers new route to designing safer pain medications
(Scripps Research Institute) 'A study like this makes it clear that even though we may think we know everything there is to know about the opioid response, we're actually just scratching the surface.' -- Kirill Martemyanov, PhD, Scripps Research Neuroscience Co-Chair

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
Research brief: A novel cellular process to engulf nano-sized materials
(University of Minnesota) University of Minnesota researchers discovered a cellular process that allows nanomaterial entry into cells.

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
Unmet family expectations linked to increased mortality among older Chinese Americans
(Rutgers University) New Rutgers-led study explores the link between mortality and the discrepancy between older Chinese Americans' expectations versus receipt of filial piety.

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
Guidelines for managing severe traumatic brain injury continue to evolve
(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) New evidence continues to drive the evolution of guideline recommendations for the medical management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
UMN researcher decodes the brain to help patients with mental illnesses
(University of Minnesota Medical School) Approximately 1 in 5 adults in the United States experience mental illness in a given year. Severe mental illnesses cause the brain to have trouble dealing with cognitively effortful states, like focusing attention over long periods of time, discriminating between two things that are difficult to tell apart, and responding quickly to information that is coming in fast.

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
Could microorganisms in poop help treat the deadliest form of skin cancer?
(Lawson Health Research Institute) In a phase I clinical trial, a multidisciplinary team at Lawson Health Research Institute is the first in Canada to study the use of fecal transplants to alter a cancer patient's microbiome and improve their response to anti-PD1 immunotherapy drugs.

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
Does the judicial system give justice to assaulted EMS first responders?
(Drexel University) Violence toward first responders is widespread and can face a felony charge in Pennsylvania, yet new research shows that victims often feel they do not receive legal justice. Now a study of victim cases and interviews with district attorneys in Philadelphia offers three solutions to help educate first responders and legal professionals to participate constructively in the legal system intended to prevent incidents from occurring and deliver justice.

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
Revealed: How E. coli knows how to cause the worst possible infection
(University of Virginia Health System) The discovery could one day let doctors prevent the infection by allowing E. coli to pass harmlessly through the body.

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
Andrei Gudkov to present at the 6th Aging Research, Drug Discovery, and AI Forum in Basel
(InSilico Medicine) Andrei Gudkov, PhD., D.Sci., Professor of Oncology at the Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, to present 'Retrobiome as a driver of intrinsic DNA damage in aging' at the 6th Ageing Research, Drug Discovery, and AI Forum in Basel, Switzerland

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
Researchers identify protein governing platinum resistant ovarian cancer
(George Washington University) Researchers at the GW Cancer Center have identified the protein ERK as an important mechanism behind platinum-resistance in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. The study is published in Clinical Cancer Research.

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
Gene regulation behind the choice of the correct receptor for olfaction
(Tokyo Institute of Technology) Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) have uncovered the genetics behind two distinct types of olfactory sensory neurons; the so called 'class I olfactory neurons' that has persisted from aquatic to terrestrial animals and the 'class II olfactory neurons' that only terrestrial animals possess.

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
Damage found in the bit area of most Finnish trotters
(University of Helsinki) In a Finnish study, damage was found in the part of the mouth affected by the bit in more than 80% of trotters examined after a race. However, such damage is easily overlooked due to being out of sight.

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
University of Utah studies safe gun storage practices in military homes
(University of Utah) Active-duty US military personnel who have had thoughts of suicide or self-harm are less likely to keep a firearm at home, but also less likely to store a firearm safely.

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
Cannabis-related poison control calls for Massachusetts kids doubled after medical pot legalized
(University of Massachusetts at Amherst) After medical marijuana became legal in Massachusetts, cannabis-related poison control calls involving the commonwealth's children and teenagers doubled, according to a public health investigation led by University of Massachusetts Amherst injury prevention researcher Jennifer Whitehill.

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
Feasibility of antimicrobial stewardship interventions in community hospitals
(JAMA Network) This study evaluated whether implementing two antimicrobial stewardship interventions (pharmacist approval to continue antibiotic use after the first dose and pharmacist engagement with the prescriber about antibiotic appropriateness after 72 hours of treatment) were feasible in community hospitals.

08/16/2019 12:00 AM
Differences in end-of-life interventions between men, women with advanced dementia
(JAMA Network) In a study of 27,000 nursing home residents in Canada with advanced dementia who died, researchers describe differences between men and women in receiving burdensome interventions in the last 30 days of life (including invasive procedures and physical restraints) and antibiotic therapy.

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